User Skills - User Support
  
Academics
Students
 
Students
 
A. Pre University
Basic literacy skills can help you get ahead by enabling you to find relevant information from any source. If you are facing difficulties, kindly refer to the following:

B. Undergraduates
Get ahead with reliable information, through extensive databases, reliable websites and good citation and referencing habits:

C. Postgraduates
Having trouble getting resources for your research? Articles that you require are not available in the databases? Books you need cannot be found anywhere? We can help you get articles at no extra cost and recommend resources to assist with your research.

D. Reserve Collection
These are text books and books in high-demand and which are available for 2-hour loans only.
Please refer to Reserve Collection at Print & Media Resources page.

E. Referencing

Manuals for

Havard Style

Harvard is an author-date style, with in-text citations and a reference list (in alphabetical order). The Harvard Citation Style is widely used, but with a number of variations. Consistency is important, make sure that you are consistent in your own application of the style.
 
 Books
Books with single author

Use the title page, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.

The required elements for a book reference are:

  • Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.

Reference:

  • Mahathir Mohamed, Tun., 2011. A doctor in the house: the memoirs of Tun Dr Mahathir. Petaling Jaya, Selangor : MPH Pub.
  • Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • In Malaysia, Opposition candidates can win, and be successful enough to gain control of state governments… (Mahathir, 2011)
  • Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted … 
Books with two, three or four authors

For books with two, three or four authors of equal status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.


The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Place: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Bullock, S., Manias, E. and Galbraith, A. 2007. Fundamentals of pharmacology. 5th. ed. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education Australia.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • Drug (Bullock, Manias and Galbraith, 2007) can be useful in your life …
Books with more than four authors

For books where there are more than four authors' uses the first author only with surname and initials followed by

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. and et al, Year. Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Place: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Napier, H. A. et al., 2002. Microsoft Office xp. Advance course: mastering and using. Australia : Course Technology.
Books which are edited

For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed., or eds.

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials., ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Reference :

  • Houlder, D. ed., 2004. Strategy: how to shape the future of the business. Norwich, UK : Format.
  • Chin, C.C. and Hack, K. eds., 2004. Dialogue with Chin Peng : new light on the Malayan Communist Party. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Books with no author

The required elements for a book reference are:

Title of book (edition). (Year of publication). Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Houses & studios designed by artists in Thailand. (2010). Bangkok: Li-Zenn.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • As discussed in Houses & studios designed (2010) or Houses and studio designed (Houses and Studio, 2010)
Chapters of edited book

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

  • Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials. Year of chapter. Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials and surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.

References:

  • Smith, J., 1995. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch. 2.
  • Roberts, L., 2003. Capital accumulation: tourism and development processes in Central and Eastern Europe. In: D. Hall, ed. Tourism and transition: governance, transformation and development. Oxfordshire : Cabi Publishing, pp. 53-64.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Smith, 1995)
  • (Roberts, 2003) 
Multiple Works by same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text.

For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initals., Year. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

References:

  • Adcock, D., 1998. Marketing principles and practice. London: Financial Times.
  • Adcock, D., 2000. Marketing strategies for competitive advantage. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons.

**Works by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest first (as above).

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Adcock, 1998, 2000)

This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation. So for example, if you have sources written by Dennis Adcock and also by John Adcock, you would list them in alphabetic order:

  • (Adcock, D. 2000)
  • (Adcock, J. 2000)
Secondary Source

A summary of another author’s work in the source that you are reading, and make a reference in your own document; this is called secondary referencing.

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authors, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of book (edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Plonik, R., and Kouyoumdjian, H. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Freud’s study (as cited in Plonik & Kouyoumdjian, 2011).
e-Books

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put ed after the name). (Year) Title of book. Edition (if not the first edition) [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available from: include e-book source/database, web address or URL [Date of access]

References:

  • Mezrich, B. (2010). The accidental billionaires:  the founding of Facebook: a tale of sex, money, genius and betrayal [e-book] New York: Anchor Books. Available through: Taylor’s University Library <http://library.taylors.edu.my> [Accessed 18 April 2011].
  • Carlsen, J. & Charters, S., eds. (2006). Global wine tourism. [e-book] Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Taylor’s University Library website <http://library.taylors.edu.my> [Accessed 18 April 2011].

For an e-book freely available over the internet:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship, Year, Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by “Available at:” include web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

For a pdf version of a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • Recent evidence (Bank of England, 2008, pp.32-33) show the trends ...
Journals

For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers (do not use ‘p’ before the page number).

References:

  • Donyai, P. (2010). Quality of medicines stored together in multi compartment compliance aids. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 35(5), 533-543.
  • Peercy, M. A., &  McCleary, K. W.  (2010). The Impact of the Year-Round School Calendar on the Family Vacation: an Exploratory Case Study. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 35,147-170.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • (Donyai, 2010)
  • (Peercy and McCleary, 2010)
Journals Articles available from databases

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: name of database [Accessed date]

Reference:

  • Wilkins, H., 2010.  Souvenirs: What and Why We Buy. Journal of Travel Research. [e-journal] 50(3). Available through: Sage Journals online. [Accessed 8 April 2011]

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • (Wilkins, 2010)
Magazine or Journal Articles available on the internet

For an article from a web based magazine or journal, which is freely available over the web, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Authors, Initials. (Year) . Title of article. Title of Journal/Magazine, [online] volume number (issue number), page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’ before the page number). Available from: web address [date of access].

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Kipper, 2008) ...
Journal abstract from databases

For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble, Abstract only. Available through:.[name of database]. [Accessed date].

Reference:

  • Williamson, R.S., 2011. A rising emboldened China. Mediterranean Quarterly, [e-journal] 22(1), Abstract only. Available through: Scopus database [Accessed 18 April 2011].

** Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Day month and year of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Page numbers of the article.

Reference:

  • Slapper, G. (Monday 13th June 2011). Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times. p.4b.

** (NB. 4b, this indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, and “b” indicates this is the second column of newsprint across the page.)

Online Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Reporter. (Day month and year of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper, [Online] Additional date information. Available from:  [Date of accesse].

Reference:

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Coney, 2009)

**It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use.


 Other Type of Documents
Annual Report

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Corporate author, Initials. Year of publication. Full title of annual report, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Petronas, 2010. 2010 annual report. Kuala Lumpur : Petronas.

For an e-version of an annual report. The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page, [type of medium]

Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]

References:

** It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use containing reference details

Conference Report

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials (Year) ‘Title of paper’, Title of conference: subtitle. Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page reference for paper.

References:

  • UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), (2005). 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.
  • Brown, J. (2005). Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.
Dissertation

For books with two, three or four authors of equal status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.


The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Place: Publisher.

Reference :

  • Bullock, S., Manias, E. and Galbraith, A. 2007. Fundamentals of pharmacology. 5th. ed. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education Australia.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • Drug (Bullock, Manias and Galbraith, 2007) can be useful in your life …
DVD, Video or Film

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Director/producer – Surname, initials. (Year published or first transmission in brackets). Title of Video or programme – in italics or underlined [Material type e.g.DVD/video – in square brackets],Production company or publisher

References:

  • Yasmin Ahmad (2005) Sepet. [DVD]. Kuala Lumpur: Golden Satelite.
  • Implementing a food safety program [videorecording] : HACCP in the workplace / Video Education Australasia. Bendigo, Vic.: Video Education Australasia.

For a film the suggested elements should include:

  • Title. Year of release. [Medium]. Directed by. Country of origin: Film studio.

Reference:

  • Macbeth, 1948. [Film] Directed by Orson Wells. USA: Republic Pictures.
Map

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Map maker/Author/Originator/cartographer of map. (Year of issue). Title of map.

** Sheet number – if available. Scale details. Series – if available. Place of Publication: Publisher. Series – if available

Reference:

  • Ordnance Survey. (2006). Chester and North Wales. Sheet 106, 1:50000, Southampton: Ordnance Survey.
Pictures, Image & Photographs

The suggested elements for a reference are:

  • Artist/Photographer’s name (if known). (Year). Title of image. In: Author - Surname, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.)-in brackets for editor(s) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title, plate number or volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher. Year of publication.
  • Bowey, D. (2004) Illustration of Sunday Morning. In: Johson, M (ed) Photographs and Art. London: Fish & Sons.
  • Beaton, C. (1944). China 1944: A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu. In: James, J (ed.) Imperial War Museum Collection. New York: Prentice.

For an electronic reference the suggested elements are:

  • Artist/Photographer’s name, Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source.[Accessed date].

Reference:

Musical Stores

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Name of composer(s). (Year of publication). Title of publication. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Reference List

  • Stravinsky, I. (1975). Rite of spring. London: Hansen House.

If the score is part of a collection or anthology:

  • Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the grapevine [Score]. In Motown anthology (pp.98-104). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard.

If there is an editor:

  • Porter, C. (1953). It’s all right with me [Score]. In W.L.Simon (Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes (pp.104-110). Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • “It’s Alright With Me” (Porter, 1953) was also used in High Society
OR
  • Porter (1953) wrote “It’s Alright With Me” for the musical Can-Can.
TV or Radio Broadcasts

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Series title. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. (Year of distribution). Transmitting

organisation and channel, full date and time of transmission.

Reference List :

  • Heroes. The Challenge of the Sixties. (2011). TV3. Monday 13th 2011.
  • It’s Not Just about the Music. 1968 Season. (2008). BBC Radio 4. Thursday 10th April.

 An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Kring (2008) expanded the theme of villa in….

OR

  • …superhero theme (Kring, 2008)
Audio Podcasts

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or organisation if no named person is available. (Year of distribution). Title. [Online]. date of update if available. Available from:

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Masters (2008) outlines…

OR

  • for East Timor (Masters, 2008).
Websites

For websites found on the worldwide web the required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship or Source. (Year). Title of web document or web page. [Online]. date of update if available. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site’s homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage (from which the reference can be found).

Static URL

Dynamic URL

We have highlighted the part of the URL that shows this is a dynamic search. If this is not available to everyone, use the second example below:

Example 1

Example 2

  • National Electronic Library for Health, 2003. Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? (Hitting the headlines article) [online] (Updated 16 Jan 2005) Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk> [Accessed 18 April 2011].

The title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page, or the title displayed on the top of the web browser.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

  • (National Electronic Library for Health, 2003)

** It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.

Publications available from websites

For publications found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Place: Producer/Publisher. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator).[Accessed date].

References:

** It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.

Blogs

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Year of posting). Title of blog entry. [Online]. Date the blog entry was written. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Reference:

Blog comments:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Comment Author,Initials. (Year). Title of individual blog entry. [Online] Comment posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Reference:

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Whitton, 2009)
  • (Geezer, 2009)
Youtube Videos

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Screen name of contributor, Year. Video Title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Reference:

Online Forum Post

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Date). Title. Message posted to Web address, archived at Web address

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Rodin (2008) has found that…

OR

  • …in cats (Rodin, 2008).
Online Encyclopedia

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Date). Title of entry. In (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia. Retrieved month day, year, from web address.

Reference:

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • McQuillan (2008) shows that…

    OR
     
  • …was highlighted (McQuillan, 2008).

 Unpublished Works
Unpublished Works

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Date). Title of entry. In (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia. Retrieved month day, year, from web address.

Reference:

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • McQuillan (2008) shows that…

OR

  • …was highlighted (McQuillan, 2008).

MLA Style

The MLA style is produced by the Modern Language Association and features brief parenthetical in-text citations that point to more detailed information in the alphabetical list of Works Cited which is included at the end of the paper. MLA style is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.
 
 Books
Books with single author

Use the title page, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.

The required elements for a book reference are:

  • Author Surname, First Name, Other names as they appear on the title page. Book title: Subtitle (if Included). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Reference:

  • Bower, John. The Craft of General Management. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1991. Print.
  • Guiltinan, James.  Marketing Management: Strategic and Programs (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. Print.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Berman 146-55)
  • (Guiltinan 100-110)
Books with two or three authors

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author Name, First Name, Other names as they appear on the title page. Book Title: Subtitle (If included). Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Reference:

  • Charles, Fontes and Jackson Milne. Integrated electrical and electronic engineering for mechanical Engineers. London: McGraw-Hill, 1994. Print. 

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • Charles and Jackson (1994) – always cite both names.
Books with more than three authors

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author Name, First Name, Other names as they appear on the title page. Book Title: Subtitle (If included). Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Reference:

  • South-Paul, Jonathan E., et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Family Medicine (3rd ed.).  New York:  McGraw-Hill Medical, 2011. Print.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • You may name only the first author and add et al. OR you may give all names in full. The rest of the citation follows the general format of books.
Books which are edited

For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed., or eds.

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author Name, First Name. Book Title. Ed. (name of editor). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Reference :

  • Khan, Mahmood A. and Turgut Var. VNR's Encyclopedia of Hospitality and Tourism. Ed. Michal D. Olsen. New York: John Wiley, 1993. Print.
  • Wood, Roy C. Strategic Questions in Food and Beverage Management. Ed. John Wiley. Boston:Butterworth-Heinemann, 1959. Print.

 An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Khan, Michael and Turgut 1993, p. 51)

The required elements for a book reference are:

  • Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition). Place of publication:  Publisher, Year. Medium.

Reference:

  • Cuisine de malaisie: Recettes Origanales du Carrefour de I’Asie. Periplus: Les Editions du Pacifique, 1995. Print.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Architectural heritage, 2007) OR  the book Architectural heritage (2007) 
Chapters of a book

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

  • Book title. Title of chapters. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

References:

  • Motivation. A Behavior-Analytic Approach to Some of the Problems of the Self: A Relational Frame Analysis. Reno, NV: Context Press, 2000. Print.
  • Tourism. Capital Accumulation: Tourism and Development Processes in Central and Eastern Europe. Oxfordshire : Cabi Publishing, 2003. Print.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Barnes-Holmes, Stewart, Dymond & Roche, 2000)
  • (Roberts, 2003)
Multiple Works by same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text.

For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initals. (Year). Title of multivolume work (Vol. volume number-s). Place of publication: Publisher.

 References:

  • Adcock, D. (1998).  Marketing Principles and Practice (Vol. 1-4). London: Financial Times.

** Works by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest first (as above).

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Adcock, 1998, 2000)

This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation. So for example, if you have sources written by Dennis Adcock and also by John Adcock, you would list them in alphabetic order:

  • (Adcock, D. 2000)
  • (Adcock, J. 2000)
Secondary Source

A summary of another author’s work in the source that you are reading, and make a reference in your own document; this is called secondary referencing. 

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal. Name of Journal,  Vol., Number of page.

Reference:

  • Plonik, R., & Kouyoumdjian, H. (2011). Art of Psychology. Introduction to psychology, 25, 100-110.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Freud’s study (as cited in Plonik & Kouyoumdjian, 2011).
e-Books

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author last name, First. Title:Subtitle. City: Publisher, Date. Name of database. Medium. Day Month Year of access

References:

  • Laskhman, K. P. Tourism Development: Problems and Prospects. Jaipur: Global Media, 2008. ebrary. Web 2. June 2011.
  • Joy, Schaverien and  Katherine Killick. Art Psychotherapy and Psychosis. London: Routledge, 1997. Ebrary. Web 2. June 2011.

For an e-book freely available over the internet:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship.  (Year). Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by “Available at:” include web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

For a pdf version of a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or Government Agency. Title of publication. Publication Information,date <URL>.

Reference:

  • Lewis, Edmund.,and John, Edmund. Health inequalities: progress and next steps London: Department of Health,  2008 <http://www.dh.gov.uk>
  • Parliament of Australia. House bill list (POA/43). Sydney: House of Reps. 2011, <http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au>

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • Recent evidence (Bank of England, 2008, pp.32-33) show the trends ...
Journals Articles

For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author last name, first name. “Article title.” Journal title volume.issue (Year): page. Print.

References:

  • Donyai, Perry. Quality of Medicines Stored Together in Multi Compartment Compliance Aids. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 35.5 (2010): 533-543. Print.
  • Peercy, Michael. A. and Kenneth W. McCleary. The Impact of the Year-Round School Calendar on the Family Vacation: an Exploratory Case Study. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 35 (2010): 147-170. Print.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • (Donyai, 2010)
  • (Peercy & Kenneth, 2010)
Journals Articles available from databases

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal title volume.issue (Year): page. Database. Web. Accessed date. URL. 

Reference:

  • Wilkins, Hopkins. Souvenirs: What and Why We Buy. Journal of Travel Research, 50.3. (2010): 100-120. EBSCOhost. Web 2. June 2011. http://web.ebscohost.com

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • (Wilkins, 2010)
Magazine or Journal Articles available on the internet

For an article from a web based magazine or journal, which is freely available over the web, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Last name, First name. “Title.” Magazine name Day Month Year of Publication. Web. Day Month Year of acces 

Reference:

  • Rosenfeld, Edward.  “In-Chaos-Ravaged Syria, Truth Gets Tossed Out the Window.” Times. 20 June 2011. Web. 25 June 2011.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Kipper, 2008) ...
Journal abstract from databases

For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available, Abstract only. Retrieve (month, date and year) from web address (quote the exact URL for the article) 

Reference:

  • Williamson, R.S. (2011).  A rising emboldened China. Mediterranean Quarterly, 22(1), Abstract only. Retrieved April 18, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com

** Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author’s last name, Author’s first name. “Article Title.” Name of Newspaper Year or date of publication: page numbers.

Reference:

  • Slapper, Gourd. (2005, June 20). “Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.” The Times 20 June 2011. A22. Print.
Online Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author. “Article title.” Newspaper Title. Sponsor or publisher of site, Date of publication. Medium. Date of access.

Reference:

  • Chittenden, Michael. “Focus: ‘Targetitis ails NHS”. Times Online. Times. Web. 18 April 2011.

Reference:

  • Coney, Joan. “Is this the Start of a New Home Loan War? HSBC Vows to Lend £1billion to Homebuyers with 10% Deposits”. Daily Mail. Daily Mail. Web. 18 April 2011.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Coney,  2009)

** It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use


 Other Type of Documents
Annual Report

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Name of organisation.  Title of report.  Place of publication: Association of College and Research Libraries, Year.Texas Lottery Commission.  Annual Report.  Austin: Texas Lottery Commission, 1996.

Reference:

  • Petronas. (2010).  2010 annual report. Kuala Lumpur : Petronas.

For an e-version of an annual report. The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or corporate author. (Year). Title of document or page, [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]

References:

** It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use containing reference details.

Conference Report

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship/author, editor or organization.  (Year). Title of paper. Title of conference proceedings, date, Month and Year of proceedings. (Ed.)Place of publication: Publisher, Year retrieved.   Page.

References:

  • Mohammed Firdaus & Muhd Sharuzzamal Bakri. (2010). “Open Source Tools for Creating Mashups with Government Datasets.” Malaysia Open Source Conference 2010. 12-14 June 2010. Ed. Sheikh Kamsa Kuala Lumpur: Linuxmalaysia. 2010. 72-265
Dissertation

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author. “Title of dissertation.” Diss. Place, Year.

Reference:

  • Yuen, Eng Kwok. Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder Using Videoconferencing. Diss. Kuala Lumpur at University of Malaya, 2010.
DVD, Video or Film

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Movie title. Dir. Director First Name Lastname. Original Release Date. Distributor, Release Date. DVD.
  • Title. Dir. Director’s name. Perf. Performer’s name(s). Distributor, year of release. Film

References:

  • Monster. The truth will finally be told. Dir. Erik Estenberg. 2008. The Asylum Home Entertainment, 2009. DVD.
  • Monster. Dir. Erik Estenberg. Perf. Sarah Lynch and Erin Sullivan. The Asylum Home Entertainment, 2009.

For a film the suggested elements should include:

  • Include title, director’s name, distributor and year of release. You may include other information if relevant. If you are citing a DVD, videocassette, etc., include original release date, format and date of release in new format.

Reference:

  • Macbeth, 1948. [Film] Directed by Orson Wells. USA: Republic Pictures.
Map

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Title of Map. Map. City: Publisher, Copyright date. Medium of publication consulted.

Reference:

  • Ordnance Survey. Map.Southampton: Ordnance Survey, 2006. Print.
  • Michigan. Map. Chicago: Rand, 2000. Print.
Pictures, Image & Photographs

The suggested elements for a reference are:

  • Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing   artwork. Title of print source. Author/editor’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher,    year. Page/plate number. Medium of reproduction

Reference:

  • Eakins, Thomas. Spinning. 1881. Private collection. Thomas Eakins. Ed. Darrel Sewell. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in assn. with Yale UP, 2001. Plate 91. Print. 

For an electronic reference the suggested elements are:

  • Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection  housing artwork. Title of database or website. Publisher/sponsor of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>

Reference:

  • Eggleston, William. Memphis. c. 1969. Museum of Mod. Art. Academy of Art University                     Collection, LUNA. Academy of Art University. Web. 27 Apr. 2011
Musical Stores

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Last name of composer, First name. Title of piece, form, number, or key.

Reference List:

  • Stravinsky, Ipoque. (1975). Rite of spring, op.14

If the score is part of a collection or anthology:

  • Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the.

If there is an editor:

  • Porter, C. (1953). It’s all right with me [Score]. In W.L.Simon (Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes     (pp.104-110). Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • “It’s Alright With Me” (Porter, 1953) was also used in High Society

    OR
     
  • Porter (1953) wrote “It’s Alright With Me” for the musical Can-Can.
TV or Radio Broadcasts

The required elements for a reference are:

  • “Episode Title.” Program Title. Network. Call letters and city of local station. Broadcast date.

Reference List:

  • Famous Commercials.” Oprah. CBS. WWMT, Kalamazoo. 27 July 1995.

An in text reference for example would read:

  • Oprah (1995) expanded the theme of villa in….
Audio Podcasts

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author. (Producer). (Date). Title. Podcast retrieved from Web address

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Masters (2008) outlines…

    OR
     
  • for East Timor (Masters, 2008).
Websites

For websites found on the worldwide web the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author last name, First name [if any](or organization or agency)." Title of Web Page. “ Title of Entire Web Site. Publisher or copyright holder, Date of page OR last update. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site’s homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage (from which the reference can be found).

Static URL:

Dynamic URL:

We have highlighted the part of the URL that shows this is a dynamic search. If this is not available to everyone, use the second example below:  

Example 1

  • National Electronic Library for Health, 2003. “Can walking make you slimmer and healthier?” Hitting the Headlines Article. Electronic Library for Health, 2005. Web. 18 April 2011.

Example 2

  • National Electronic Library for Health, 2003. Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? (Hitting the headlines article) [online] (Updated 16 Jan 2005) Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk> [Accessed 18 April 2011].

The title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page, or the title displayed on the top of the web browser.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

  • (National Electronic Library for Health, 2003)

**It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.

Publications available from websites
For publications found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:
  • Author or Government Agency. Title of publication. Publication Information, date <URL>.
References:
  • Scottish, Yoshua. Hypertension in the Elderly. Edinburgh : SIGN (Published 2001) , 2011 from < http://www.sign.ac.uk>
  • Boots Group Plc. Corporate Social Responsibility. London: GPO, 2011 <http://www.Boots-Plc.Com>
  • Defoe, David. The Fortunes and the Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Adelaide: HAM, 1999 <http://www.gutenberg.org>
  • Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with LEarning Disabilities. (n.d). Healthcare for all. Retrieved from http://www.iahpld.org.uk
** It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.
Blogs

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site. Version number (if available). Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Medium of publication. Date of access. 

Reference:

  • Whitton Felix.  (2009). “Conservationists are Not Making Themselves Heard.“ BoardGeek. BoardGeek, 20 June 2011. Web. 25 June 2011.

Blog comments:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or screen name. (Year, Month Date). Title of individual blog entry. [Any identifier]. Retrieved From blog address. 

Reference:

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Whitton, 2009)
  • (Geezer, 2009)
Youtube Videos

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Last name, first name. Title of video. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009.YouTube. Web. Date Month Year                 

Reference:

Online Forum Post

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or screen name. (Date, Month date). Title. Message posted to Web address, archived at Web address

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Rodin (2008) has found that…

    OR
     
  • …in cats (Rodin, 2008).
Online Encyclopedia

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author of Article [last name first] (if available). "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. <Encyclopedia homepage address (URL)>.

Reference:

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • McQuillan (2008) shows that…

    OR
     
  • …was highlighted (McQuillan, 2008).

 Unpublished Works
Unpublished Works

You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:

  • Author. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

Reference:

  • Woolley, E. & Muncey, T. (2011) Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). 

APA Style

APA is the publishing style established by the American Psychological Association. APA style is used in all of the books and journals that the association publishes, and is widely adopted in the social and behavioural sciences.
 
 Books
Books with single author

Use the title page, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.

The required elements for a book reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Year). Title of book. (Edition) (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.

Reference:

  • Bower, J. L. (1991). The craft of general management. Boston: Harvard Business School.
  • Guiltinan, J. P. (1994). Marketing management: Strategic and programs (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • “…In Malaysia, Opposition candidates can win  and be successful”  (Mahathir,  2011)
  • Rains (2011, p. 58) claimed that…
Books with two authors

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition).  Place: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Charles, F., & Milne, J. (1994).  Integrated electrical and electronic engineering for mechanical Engineers. London: McGraw-Hill. 

An in text reference for the above examples would read:   

  • Shemin and Hirsch (2010) … OR “… to known the secrets of the money masters” (Shemin & Hirsch, 2010, p. 45)
Books with three to seven authors

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Year). Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition).  Place: Publisher.

Reference:

  • South-Paul, J. E., Matheny, S. C. , &  Lewis, E. L. (2011). Current diagnosis & treatment in family medicine (3rd ed.).  New York:  McGraw-Hill Medical.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • South-Paul, Matheny and Lewis (2011, p. 5) found…

  ** (Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs).

  • South-Paul et al. (2011, p. 5) found…

** (In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et. al. (not italicized and with a full stop after “al”) and the year). 

Books with more than seven authors

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authors, Initials.  (Year). Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Place: Publisher.

** [When a reference has up to 7 authors, spell out the authors’ names in the reference list. For works with more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 full stops (…) then spell out the last author’s name]

Reference:

  • Grade,  E., Kolaitis, P.G., Libkin, L., Marx, M., Spencer, J., Vardi, M. Y., Weinstein, S. (2007). Finite model theory and its applications. Berlin, Germany : Springer.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Grade et al., 2007,  p. 35)

** [Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et. al. (not italicized and with a full stop after “al” and the year].

Books which are edited

For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed., or eds.

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials., (Ed [s].). (Year). Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Khan, M. A., Olsen, M. D., & Var, T. (Eds.). (1993). VNR's encyclopedia of hospitality and tourism. New York: John Wiley.
  • Wood, R. C. (Ed.). (1959). Strategic questions in food and beverage management. Boston:                Butterworth-Heinemann.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Ratti, 2009, p. 51)
  • (Wood & Connely, 2009,  p. 51)
  • (Moss, Powell & DeSanto, 2010. p. 51)
Books with no author

The required elements for a book reference are:

  • Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition).  (Year of publication).  Place of publication:  Publisher.

Reference:

  • Cuisine de malaisie: Recettes origanales du carrefour de I’Asie. (1995). Periplus: Les editions du Pacifique.

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Architectural heritage, 2007) OR  the book Architectural heritage (2007)
Chapters of a book

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author (s) of chapter. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In Editor (s) & (Ed[s].), Title of book (pages of chapter). Place of publication: Publisher.

References:

  • Barnes-Holmes, D., Stewart, I., Dymond, S., & Roche, B. (2000). A behavior-analytic approach to some of the problems of the self: A relational frame analysis. In M. Dougher (Ed.), Clinical behavior analysis (pp. 47-74). Reno, NV: Context Press.
  • Roberts, L. (2003). Capital accumulation: tourism and development processes in Central and Eastern Europe. In: D. Hall, ed. Tourism and transition: governance, transformation and development. Oxfordshire : Cabi Publishing, pp. 53-64.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Barnes-Holmes, Stewart, Dymond & Roche, 2000)
  • (Roberts, 2003) 
Multiple Works by same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text.

For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initals. (Year). Title of multivolume work (Vol. volume number-s). Place of publication: Publisher.

References:

  • Adcock, D. (1998). Marketing principles and practice (Vol 1-4). London: Financial Times.

**Works by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest first (as above).

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Adcock, 1998, 2000)

This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation. So for example, if you have sources written by Dennis Adcock and also by John Adcock, you would list them in alphabetic order:

  • (Adcock, D. 2000)
  • (Adcock, J. 2000)
Secondary Source

A summary of another author’s work in the source that you are reading, and make a reference in your own document; this is called secondary referencing.

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal. Name of Journal,  Vol., Number of page.

Reference:

  • Plonik, R., & Kouyoumdjian, H. (2011). Art of Psychology. Introduction to psychology, 25, 100-110.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Freud’s study (as cited in Plonik & Kouyoumdjian, 2011).
e-Books

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author (s). (Year).  Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved Month data, year from (URL address)

References:

  • Laskhman, K. P. (2008). Tourism development: Problems and prospects. Jaipur: Global Media. Retrieved June 21, 2011 from http://site.ebrary.com
  • Joy, S., & Killick, K. (1997). Art psychotherapy and psychosis. London: Routledge. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://site.ebrary.com

For an e-book freely available over the internet:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship.  (Year).  Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by “Available at:” include web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

For a pdf version of a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship.  (Year).  Title of publication (Report letters/numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from name of website: http://www.xxxx.
  • Lewis, E., & John, E. (2008). Health inequalities: progress and next steps (DOP/7:V30. London: Department of Health. Retrieved from Departmental of Health: http://www.dh.gov.uk
  • Parliament of Australia. (2011). House bill list  (POA/43). Sydney: House of Reps. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • Recent evidence (Bank of England, 2008, pp.32-33) show the trends ..
Journals Articles

For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, (must put family name/surname). (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), page numbers.

References:

  • Donyai, P. (2010). Quality of medicines stored together in multi compartment compliance aids. Journal of  Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 35(5), pp.533-543.
  • Peercy, M. A., & McCleary, K. W.  (2010). The Impact of the year-round school calendar on the Family Vacation: an Exploratory Case Study. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 35, 147-170.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • (Donyai, 2010)
  • (Peercy & McCleary, 2010)
Journals Articles available from databases

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. Retrieved (month, date and year) from (address of database)

Reference:

  • Wilkins, H. (2010).  Souvenirs: What and Why We Buy. Journal of Travel Research, 50(3). Retrieved June, 20 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • (Wilkins, 2010) 
Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author (must start with family name/surname). (Year, month and day of publication). Title of article. Name of magazine, page. 

Reference:

  • Slapper, G. (2005, June 20). Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, p.4b.

** (NB. 4b, this indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, and “b” indicates this is the second column of newsprint across the page.)

Online Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or corporate author. (Year, month and date). Title of newspaper article. Name of newspaper, Retrieved from website address.

Reference:

Reference:

  • Coney, J. (2009). Is this the start of a new home loan war? HSBC vows to lend £1billion to homebuyers with 10% deposits. Daily Mail, Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk

 An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • (Coney,  2009)

** It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use


 Other Type of Documents
Conference Report

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship/author, editor or organization.  (Year). Title of paper. In Editor (first initial, last name) (Ed.) Title of conference proceedings (page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

References:

  • Mohammed Firdaus & Muhd Sharuzzamal Bakri. (2010). Open source tools for creating mashups with Government datasets. In editor (Ed.) Malaysia Open Source Conference 2010. Kuala Lumpur: Linuxmalaysia.
Dissertation

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author. (year of publication). Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number (issue)-if stated, page, series (UMI No.xxxxxxx).

Reference:

  • Yuen, E. K. (2010). Acceptance-based behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using Videoconferencing. Dissertation Abstracts International, 199. (UMI No. 3541184).
DVD, Video or Film

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Producer’s last name (producer), & director’s last name (Director). (Year). Movie title [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Name of movie studio.

References:

  • Cagle, J. (Producer), & Estenberg, E. (Director). (2008). Monster: The truth will finally be told [Motion Picture]. United States: The Asylum.

For a film the suggested elements should include:

  • Title. (Year of release).  [Medium] Director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Reference:

  • Macbeth, 1948. [Film] Directed by Orson Wells. USA: Republic Pictures.
Map

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Map maker. (Year of issue). Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale, Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference:

  • Ordnance Survey. (2006). Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000,          Southampton: Ordnance Survey.
Pictures, Image & Photographs

The suggested elements for a reference are:

  • Artist/Photographer’s name (if known). (Year of production). Title of image. [type of medium] Collection Details as available (Collection, Document number, Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository).
  • Beaton,C. (1956). Marilyn Monroe. [photograph] (Marilyn Monroe’s own private collection).
  • Beaton,C. (1944). China 1944: A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu. [photograph] (Imperial War Museum Collection).

For an electronic reference the suggested elements are:

  • Artist/Photographer’s name, Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source. [Accessed date].

Reference:

Musical Stores

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Name of composer(s). (Year of publication). Title of publication [Medium]. Place of publication:     Publisher.

Reference List:

  • Stravinsky, I. (1975). Rite of spring. [Score]. London, England: Hansen House.

If the score is part of a collection or anthology:

  • Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the grapevine [Score]. In Motown anthology (pp.98-104). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard.

If there is an editor:

  • Porter, C. (1953). It’s all right with me [Score]. In W.L.Simon (Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes     (pp.104-110). Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • “It’s Alright With Me” (Porter, 1953) was also used in High Society

    OR
     
  • Porter (1953) wrote “It’s Alright With Me” for the musical Can-Can.
TV or Radio Broadcasts

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Producer or director (Producer/Director). (Broadcast date). Title of broadcast [Descriptive phrase]. City of broadcast: Network.

Reference List :

  • Kring, T. (Producer). (2008). Heroes [Television Series]. Melbourne, Australia: Seven Corporation.
  • Emery, T. (Director). (2004).The mango espadrille [Television series episode]. In G.Riley & J.Turner (Producers). Kath & Kim. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Kring (2008) expanded the theme of villa in….

    OR
     
  • …superhero theme (Kring, 2008)
Audio Podcasts

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author. (Producer). (Date). Title. Podcast retrieved from Web address

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Masters (2008) outlines…

    OR
     
  • for East Timor (Masters, 2008).
Websites

For websites found on the worldwide web the required elements for a reference are:

  • Authorship or Source. (Year). Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site’s homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage (from which the reference can be found).

Static URL:

Dynamic URL:

We have highlighted the part of the URL that shows this is a dynamic search. If this is not available to everyone, use the second example below:

Example 1

Example 2

  • National Electronic Library for Health, 2003. Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? (Hitting the headlines article) [online] (Updated 16 Jan 2005) Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk [Accessed 18 April 2011].

The title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page, or the title displayed on the top of the web browser. An intext reference for the above examples would read:

  • (National Electronic Library for Health, 2003)

** It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.

Publications available from websites

For publications found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

  • Author/ corporate author. (Year). Title of document.  Retrieved (Month date, year) website address from.

References:

  • Scottish, Y.  (2001). Hypertension in the elderly. Edinburgh : SIGN (Published 2001) Retrieved June 22, 2011 from http://www.sign.ac.uk
  • Boots Group Plc. (2003). Corporate social responsibility. Retrieved June 20 from http://www.Boots-Plc.Com
  • Defoe, D. (1999). The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders. Retrieved 20 June from http://www.gutenberg.org
  • Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with Learning Disabilities. (n.d). Healthcare for all. Retrieved from http://www.iahpld.org.uk

** It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.

Blogs

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or screen name. (Year, Month Date). Title of message. [Any identifier]. Retrieved from website address.

Reference:

Blog comments:

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or screen name. (Year, Month Date). Title of individual blog entry. [Any identifier]. Retrieved From blog address.

Reference:

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

  • (Whitton, 2009)
  • (Geezer, 2009)
Youtube Videos

The required elements for a reference are:                     

  • Author or screen name. (Year, month and date). Subject line of message [Video file]. Retrieved from address URL

Reference:

Online Forum Post

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author or screen name. (Date, Month date). Title. Message posted to Web address, archived at Web address

Reference:

An in text reference for the above example would read:

  • Rodin (2008) has found that…

    OR
     
  • …in cats (Rodin, 2008).
Online Encyclopedia

The required elements for a reference are:

  • Author(s). (Year). Title. In title of encyclopedia (Vol., page). Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from website address.

Reference:

  • McQuillan, M. (2008). Picasso. In Oxford Art Online Encyclopedia. United States: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from http://www.oxfordartonline.com.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

  • McQuillan (2008) shows that…

    OR
     
  • …was highlighted (McQuillan, 2008).

 Unpublished Works
Unpublished Works

You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:

  • Author. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

Reference:

  • Woolley, E. & Muncey, T. (2011) Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).